The resources listed below have been written by, for, or relate to the Urban Fire Service and Emergency Medical Service systems in regard to stress injuries.

This student manual, Stress First Aid for Firefighters and Emergency Medical Services Personnel has been developed to assist firefighters and EMS providers in taking care of each other. As this manual notes, Stress First Aid (SFA) “offers a flexible set of tools for addressing stress reactions in firefighters and rescue personnel.” It is intended to help members and leaders provide compassionate assistance to fire and Emergency Medical Services personnel, to prevent the progression of stress reactions and to bridge affected individuals to more formal treatment when that is required.

The National Fallen Firefighters Foundation (NFFF) recently introduced a new Behavioral Health Model that changes the way the fire service assists firefighters on the path to healing following traumatic events. In this article, Bill Carey explores how and why stress first aid is relevant to the fire service.

The National Fallen Firefighters Foundation (NFFF) developed this Student Manual for Curbside Manner: Stress First Aid for the Street with funding provided by the Department of Homeland Security’s Assistance to Firefighters Fire Prevention & Safety Grant Program, with additional support from the Department of Justice. Curbside Manner is a component of the NFFF’s Behavioral Health program that supports Firefighter Life Safety Initiative 13 (FLSI 13): Firefighters and their families must have access to counseling and psychological support.

Continuing Education - Stress First Aid for Fire and EMS Personnel First Responders

SFA was designed specifically to support firefighters, EMS, and rescue personnel, understand and recognize how stress manifests through thoughts words and actions. Additionally, the course covers how to deliver the “Seven C’s” of Stress First Aid (Check, Coordinate, Cover, Calm, Connect, Competence, Confidence).

Fire Service Behavioral Health Management guide (PDF)

Published by the IAFF and provides their recommendations for several different aspects of firefighter behavior health, like peer support.

Article - Occupational and Organizational Issues in EMS Behavioral Health

Recent advances in research and understanding of the behavioral health impacts of an emergency medical service (EMS) career have necessitated reconceptualization of previous approaches to prevention, mitigation, and intervention. Current recommendations focus on supporting personal and organizational foundations that help to bolster resilience while ensuring that processes are in place to provide access to intervention utilizing evidence-informed best practices where indicated.

Article - Occupational and Organizational Issues in EMS Behavioral Health

First Responders use the term MBS - "Minimum Breaking Strength" - the point at which an item fails or breaks. MBS usually refers to equipment. But what about our bodies? Our mental state? We all have a breaking point.

"When trauma, loss, moral/ethical betrayals, and outright wear and tear add up and you react to it, you’re not crazy. You’re injured. And, just like every other injury type, prevention is possible. The early stages of stress injury can, with awareness, be arrested before major harm occurs. It is not necessary to break or even come near your MBS."

Manual - Stress First Aid for Firefighters and Emergency Medical Services Personnel

Article- Understanding Stress First Aid in the Fire Service

Manual - Curbside Manner: Stress First Aid for the Street

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